Abstract: Physicochemical parameters of ground water (inside the industrial premises) and untreated effluent, such as PH , Turbidity, Total Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, BOD, COD, Chromium (VI) were analysed by following ISO pocedures and expressed in mg/L except PH . This was repeated for every alternate month for 1 year. TDS (192.6 + 63.1 to 410.6 + 18.4); COD (256 + 274 to 410.6 + 50.8 mg/L); Total hardness (83.3 + 11.9 to 164.3 + 5.1 mg/L). Chromium (VI) (0.1 + 0 to 0.2 + 0.1) were recorded in groundwater. The Untreated tannery effluent has following ranges in respective parameters BOD (5100 + 173.2 to 6933.3 + 519.6); COD (15960 + 173.2 to 19000 + 222.7), sulfides (148 + 34.6 to 201 + 24.3). Chromium (VI) (142.5 + 24.5 to 239 + 33.4) was above the permissible limits (BIS Inland Discharge Standards).
Keywords: Tanning Industry, Tannery effluents, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Solids (TS).
The tanning industry is typically portrayed as one of the pollutions producing businesses that turnout wide varieties of high loads of pollutants. The tanning procedure is a wet procedure that spends more quantities of water and produces about 90% of the spent water as effluent (Chowdhury et al. 2013). It’s perceived a huge ecological danger because of large amounts of pollutants like salinity, organic, inorganic burden, dissolved, suspended solids, specific contaminations (sulfide, chromium, chloride, and other salt deposits) and critical heavy metals and so on. (Cooman et al. 2003; Boshoff et al. 2004; Chaudry et al. 1997; Tariq et al. 2005; Apte et al. 2005; Leghouichi et al. 2009; Akan et al. 2007). From the total water consumed in the tanning process water, 90% of the water is discharged as effluent. Apart from the making of leather, strong liquid and vaporous wastes are additionally released. In the chrome tanning process, 40% unused chromium salts are generally released in the final effluents, making a genuine danger to nature (Leghouichi et al. 2009; Owlad et al. 2008; Greenstein et al. 2005). Exposure to chromium, pentachlorophenol, and another dangerous toxin increment the danger of dermatitis, ulcer, perforation of nasal septum, and lung disease (Carlos et al. 2002) Chromium is known to be exceptionally harmful to the aquatic organisms in the hexavalent form than the trivalent form. Hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic and mutagenic, even with a little amount (10mg/L) can cause nausea, vomiting, skin irritation, and problems related to the respiratory tract which can cause lung carcinoma due to chromium toxicity (Subramani et al. 2002). With no exemptions there is no cost-effective effluent treatment plant (ETP) in leather the tanning industries, the tannery industry is in transition about human wellbeing and ecological security. The tannery emanating decimates the life of accepting water bodies and land surface (Cooman et al. 2003) There are around 2161 tanneries that procedure 500,000 a lot of stows away and 314 kilograms of skins every year. This industry is widely unfurled in Tamilnadu, Kanpur, Karnataka, and Rajasthan (Vijayanand and Hemapriya, 2014). In Tamilnadu alone, there are around 1120 tanneries set in Vellore, Ranipet, Trichy, Dindugal, Erode, and Pallavaram in the urban focus (Noorjahan, 2014). In India chromium is discharged into the environment from tanneries in the range of 2000 to 5000 mg/L in contrast to the prescribed discharge limits of 2 mg/L (Altaf et al., 2008). Tanneries have been present in Warangal since 1830 when the Nizam ruled the area. The hide was treated in a crude manner using herbs. In 1965, chemicals were introduced to clean the hides. Because of many reasons, the number of tanneries has descended throughout