PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ANISOMELES INDICA (L.) KUNTZE. FROM DIBRUGARH, ASSAM
Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze, a commonly used and easily available medicinal plant that has not studied in detail from Dibrugarh, Assam. The study revealed that tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid, steroid, glycoside, cardiac glycoside, saponin, reducing sugar, and phenol are recorded in all the tested parts of the plant. Methanol and ethanol extracts recorded the highest phenol and flavonoid content respectively. Water extract of mature leaves recorded the highest antioxidant inhibition (86.84±3.17 percent) against DPPH. Acetone extract of all the parts recorded good inhibition against the tested microbial strains than other extracts of the plant. The use of different parts, instead of using the whole plant will help in sustainable management of the medicinal plant.
Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Sustainable, Management
Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze is an erect aromatic perennial herb found throughout India as weed in waste places, roadsides and forests clearing (Wealth of India, 1985). The plant belongs to the family Lamiaceae having numerous traditional uses. The various parts likeleaves, stem, flowers and essential oils are used in various practices. The plant is used in various folk medicines and have various medicinal properties like-antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective, antimalarial (Ramachandran and Nair, 1981; Sikarwar and Kaushik, 1993; Tiwari, 1995; Chatterjee and Pakrashi, 1997; Sudhakar and Chetty, 1998; Dharmasiri et al., 2000; Wang and Huang, 2005; Batish et al., 2007; Hsieh et al.,2008; Shaik and Balakumar, 2014; Ulhe and Narkhede, 2014). Besides having various medicinal values, the plant is not studied well from the study area. As, the biochemical properties of plant always differ from place to place and habitat to habitat, their study is necessary from various places to know their differences in their activities. The main aim of the work is to perform qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay of different extracts of different aerial parts of the plant. Use of different solvent extracts on the basis of their polarity level also reveal differences in their activities. The use of different aerial parts besides using whole plant will also help in sustainable management of these medicinal plants.
Samples were collected from Dibrugarh district of Assam at their full bloomed stage. The samples were brought to the laboratory of Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University. Different parts were separated and cleaned properly and washed under running water to remove dust and other debris. The materials were air dried at room temperature. The materials were grounded to fine powder using electric grinder. The fine powder was kept in air tight bottles for further analysis. Extracts were prepared in five solvents vizwater, methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether by cold maceration methods and are known as cold extracts. Hot extract of petroleum ether was prepared in soxhlet apparatus. The dried extracts were dissolved in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) to obtain sample solution at 1mg/ml of concentration. Aqueous extracts were dissolved in distilled water at 1mg/ml of concentration. Qualitative analysis for detection of various phytochemicals were performed using standard laboratory methods. Total phenol content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the sample extract was estimated following the method described by Malik and Singh (1980) and Mervat and Hanan (2009) respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was determined by the method described by Stanojevic et al. (2009) and Re et al. (1999) respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the bacterial strains was carried out by agar well diffusion method described by Nair et al. (2005) using 6mm borer. All the experiments were done in triplicate and mean and SD was calculated and are presented in ± form.
Results and Discussion
The qualitative phytochemical analysis of different parts of the plant are presented in Table 1. Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, reducing sugar and phenols are recorded and phlobatanin, anthraquinone, free-anthraquinone and alkaloids are absent. Yasmin et al. (2011); Ulhe and Narkhede (2013); Shaik and Balakumar (2014) also reported these phytochemicals in the plant. The difference in presence and absence of these phytochemicals might be due to the microclimate and soil condition of the area from where the plant is collected. The quantitative estimation for total phenol and flavonoids content are presented in Table 2. Methanol and ethanol extract showed better extraction of phenolic substances than water, acetone and petroleum ether extracts at 1mg/ml of concentration. Methanol extract of young leaves recorded highest (34.97±5.02 mgCE/gm dry extract) phenol content. The flavonoid content was recorded highest (2.88±0.00 mgQE/gm dry extract) in ethanol extract of inflorescence. Maqbool et al., (2016) recorded a wide range of phenol and flavonoid content from 1145.5±0.593 to 198.5±0.395 mg/L of GAE and 3123.7±0.395 to 1154.5±0.376 mg/L of Quercetin Equivalent respectively in methanol extract of the leaves. This experiment suggested that the extraction efficiency of various solvents may vary with respect to the phytochemicals present in the plant samples.
Table 3 presents the antioxidant activity of the sample extracts of A. indica. Water extracts of young and mature leaves (84.03±0.00 percent and 86.84±3.17 percent) and methanol extract of young leaves (81.95±0.00 percent) recorded higher antioxidant activity than other extracts of other parts of the plant against DPPH at 500µl of sample at 1mg/ml of concentration. The results of the present study supported the previous reports from different parts of the country (Yasmin et al., 2011; Baranwal et al., 2012; Kundu et al., 2013; Shaik and Balakumar, 2014; Dixit and Sharma, 2014). Maqbool et al., (2016) studied the antioxidant activities of methanol extract of leaves and recorded significant antioxidant activities in TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Activity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). The more antioxidant activity recorded by leaves might be due to the more amounts of phytochemicals present in leaves. The results of antimicrobial activity study of the sample extracts of A. indica are presented in Table 4. The acetone extract recorded more antibacterial activity against various tested bacterial and fungal strains. Yogesh and Krishnakant, (2011); Naise and Bhadange, (2013); Dixit and Sharma (2014) also revealed antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of the plant. The difference in antimicrobial activities in different solvent extracts of different parts might be due to the phytochemicals which are responsible for the antimicrobial activity of plant.
Junali Chetia*1 and L.R. Saikia2 1 *Silapathar College, Silapathar, Dhemaji, Assam, India 2Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India *Correspondence author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org