Abstract: The Madurai Kamaraj University is situated in Madurai town, Tamil Nadu state, India
is an urban area has geographical Location of Latitude 9.941418, Longitude 78.008896 and
GPS Latitude coordinates – 9° 56’ 29. 1048 “N and Longitude 78° 0’ 32.0256 “E. The population
in Madurai metropolitan town is around 14, 65,625 Lakhs (in 2011 census)-[Male-7, 33,821
Lakhs and female-7, 31,804 Lakhs]. The study of air pollution in this paper consist of two partsOne part deals with (1): The survey of Improved air quality dedicated to nation by Indian Rail
Transport (98.5 percent), in outdoor air pollution control, which is done by a conversion process
of electrification implemented in all rail tracks in India – and other part deals with (2): Indoor air
pollution generated in a saw mill may be handled by best solid waste recycling process of
compost method for agricultural usage. This study of saw dust recycling is come under the
Indoor air quality engineering .The Indoor air pollution is very important because the outdoor air
pollution is lower than Indoor air pollution. Also, the outdoor air is a source of supply of air to
indoor environment in a house/ Industry. In general, the saw mill generates more amount of saw
dust per year. The solid waste of saw dust is disposed by open firing method, creates air
pollution in local atmosphere and creates lot of health problems to working people inside and
surrounding living people nearby saw mill in an urban area. The saw dust mixed with (cow +
goat dung) is completely converted into natural fertilizer for agriculture. This study also focus on
The Indian railway introduces electrification in rail track (except Rameshwaram) in several
routes and ensure air pollution free zone that is zero percentage carbon emission zone.


Key words: Timber Waste, Ground Nut Waste, Coconut Waste, Straw Waste, Carbon Zones
Every person lives in India, have a rights to breathe clean air, pure water to drink and healthy
food to eat. In this study, I find that peoples are lived in a lack of healthy environment in India.
We are having Environmental laws and Forest Laws are available to control the emission of
waste from an Industry. But air quality available in some of cities founded in low levels (for
example: Varanasi and Delhi). The Madurai Kamaraj University is situated in Madurai town,
Tamil Nadu state; India is an urban area has a geographical Location of Latitude 9.941418,
Longitude 78.008896 and GPS /DMC Latitude- coordinates- 9° 56’ 29. 1048 “N and GPS/DMS
Longitude – 78° 0’ 32.0256 “E. The population in Madurai urban area in continuously increased
every year and death rate is decreased in considerable amount, due to advanced medical
facility available in the town areas. The population in Madurai urban area is: 14,65,625 Lakhs (in
2011 census)-[Male-7,33,821 Lakhs and female-7,31,804 Lakhs (census 2011)[1]
. In year-2021 census, the population growth will be doubled as compared with previous census 2011.
Every state in India has its own pollution control Board to control and ensure the
minimum air quality standard inside and outside an Industry. The central government also
monitors all the Industries indirectly in India. The duty of a pollution board is air pollution sample
is taken from the Industry and analyzed. The result will be declared by comparison with previous
air pollution standard data in the process and control Labs. Based on the result, the Industry is
identified and issued ISO certificates to the particular company. If the air quality level is below
the standard level, the pollution board has enough power to instruct the Industry to maintain the
air quality standard. Each Industry also has its own testing lab for testing purpose in a predefined time [2, 3]
. A penalty may be imposed to an Industry for their ignorance on running the
Industry without controlling the emission of waste to atmosphere. In India, time to time the
pollution Board has given suggestions to all Industry about the pollution control activities in
India. It is a routine job for the pollution control board is, to monitor and give their reports to
Government higher authorities periodically. A periodic visit (schedule) is carried out by the
pollution board and the Industry is continuously monitored in round the clock and maintains their
air standard in particular urban area in India. The design of chimney height is one of the very
important factors for a plant because which affect the air pollution control. The air pollution from
an Industry leads to either short period impact or long time impact on human health related
problems (skin and heart problems).
In this paper the author has tried to focusing Saw dust-solid waste disposal in new
approach for small scale formers. By this process, the land automatically regains their nutrition’s
again and again. This study of saw dust recycling is come under the Indoor air quality
engineering. In Urban side most of Saw dust, banana tree waste are dumped in one place and
fired in open place. After cultivation is over in an agricultural field, in general, the banana tree
waste are collected and fired in open place is general procedure followed by a small scale
former. It creates air pollution in local urban areas. Each country has its own method for
composting a solid waste disposal management. I selected the very low cost method for the
conversion process. The Banana tree waste and saw dust was mixed with (cow dung + goat
dung) certain ratio. The preparation of composting is done in a pit of pre-defined sizes [4, 5]
. The soil layer and waste layer are filled in alternate layer in a pit. Within few months the above items
are converted into simple/ low cost fertilizer for agricultural usage with high neutrinos. This
method used here for converting waste to natural fertilizer is called composting. It is one of
the best methods to convert timber waste (saw dust) to agricultural fertilizer completely in a
useful manner. It is also suitable for Diary firms one who produce more amount cow dung in a
small period to avoid open burning method [6]
The Saw dust may be used for fuel directly in homes and also used in power production in
some countries [7, 8]
.The Saw dust is purchased from a Local Saw mill at the rate of Rs. 20.0 per
bag (25 kg.) is collected nearby Batalagundu urban area, which is my selected area of limitation
for this paper. All the agricultural solid wastes are collected from, my own agricultural firm, in
the place of Batalagundu (4 acre). The solid wastes are collected from agricultural waste on the
weight basis. The sample consists of 2000 kg. cow dung, 2000 kg. goat dung, 200 kg. rice
straw, 500 kg saw dust, 200 kg. banana tree waste, 200 kg coconut tree waste(leaf only) and
200 kg ground nut waste . The water is collected from a (2×1000) liter plastic tank installed
nearby pit and a required plastic hose of 100 meter length also purchased from local shop at the
rate of Rs.12.0 per feet. The method used here is composting method. In a short period, this
gives an output of natural agricultural fertilizer from a particular solid waste by a recycling
Study Area
The selected urban area for my sample collection is very much close to Madurai town is
Batalgundu. The cultivation in this area is mostly paddy, sugar cane, banana tree and coconut
tree. Throughout the year the cultivation was takes place in a cyclic manner depends upon the
water availability. In several years, the solid waste disposal is a very big problem to local
farmers in these areas. So, the author has taken this task as pilot one to find out a remedy for
this problem. The author used a composting method without using any microorganism. After
composting, this product is used in agricultural purpose, for plant growth in different field without
affecting the land quality (paddy / Banana / Coconut cultivation).This produce a green
environment and avoid air pollution in this urban areas[9,10]
. Another selection area is in Rail  transport, which is a survey of running a train with emission of carbon particle or not in various places like Madurai Railway station situated in an urban area and few specific places (Dindigul
railway station and Chennai railway station) from the year 1951.The Indian railway done a
wonderful job of gauge conversion and electrification of rail track in India for past few years. The
Railway stations are Madurai Junction, Dindigul Junction and Chennai Egmore station in
Tamilnadu, India.
Experimental Procedures
For composting method, we use the available animal waste which was collected from my own
firm, is dumped near the pit for 2-days and mixed thoroughly by manual method .The mixture
consist of (cow dung + sheep dung + goat dung + saw dust + banana tree waste + coconut tree
waste(leaf only) + river sand (200 kg) in the ratio of [1:1:0.5:0.1: 0.1:1]). The pit is filled with soil
and cow dung mixture is laid down/filled layer-by-layer arrangement. The water is sprayed in the
pit one or two times only to wet the inner layer of the pit in the first stage of period following
within a range of (15-30) days. This will very much helpful to multiply microorganism in large
numbers (which is freely available in air), to destroy saw dust and cow dung mixture. In second
half period, the microorganism is died and this process needed not any water further for
composting. Finally it is converted into natural fertilizer.

Read More


P. Raj Kumar
Associate Professor, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai (Tamil Nadu) India
Email: rp878101@gmail.com, rajkumarp.p947@gmail.com


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